Home > Product list > Tm


Thulium, including Technical Data, Safety Data and its high purity propertiesresearch, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure,ionization energyabundance on Earthconductivity and thermal properties are included. 

Thulium is representative of the other lanthanides (rare earths) similar in chemistry to Yttrium. Thulium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. Tm emits blue upon excitation. Flat panel screens depend critically on bright blue emitters. Also, under X-ray bombardment emissions are in both the 375 nm (ultra violet) and 465 (visible blue) wave lengths. This gives the material useful applications in low radiation detection for detection badges and similar uses. It is also used in other luminescence applications, such as halide discharge lamps. Flat panel screens depend critically on bright blue emitters. 

Thulium facts, including appearance, CAS #, and molecular formula and safety data, research and properties are available for many specific states, forms and shapes on the product pages listed to the left. Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes.Nanoparticles and nanopowdersprovide ultra high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. 

Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such usesHigh Purity (99.999%) Thulium Oxide (Tm2O3) Powder as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Thulium is available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are also manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries. 

Thulium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of Thulium‘s shells is 2, 8, 18, 31, 8, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Xe]4f136s2. In its elemental form thulium‘s CAS number is 7440-30-4. The thulium atom has a radius of and it‘s Van der Waals radius is unknown. Thulium is not toxic. 

High Purity (99.999%) Thulium (Tm) Sputtering TargetAll elemental metals, compounds and solutions may be synthesized in ultra high purity (e.g. 99.999%) for laboratory standards, advanced electronic, thin fillm deposition using sputtering targets and evaporation materials, metallurgy and optical materials and other high technology applications. Information is provided for stable (non-radioactive) isotopesOrgano-Metallic Thulium compounds are soluble in organic or non-aqueous solvents. See Analytical Services for information on available certified chemical and physical analysis techniques including MS-ICP, X-Ray Diffraction, PSD and Surface Area (BET) analysis. 

Thulium, first discovered by Theodore Cleve in 1879, is found in small quantities in minerals such as monazite. Thulium is named after "Thule", which is the ancient name of Scandinavia. See Thuliumresearch below.

Thulium Abundance. The following table shows the abundance of Thulium and each of its naturally occurring isotopes on Earth along with the atomic mass for each isotope.
Isotope Atomic Mass % Abundance on Earth
Tm-169 168.934 100

The following table shows the abundance of Thulium present in the human body and in the universe scaled to parts per billion (ppb) by weight and by atom:
  Typical Human Body Universe
by Weight no data 0.1 ppb
by Atom no data 0.001 ppb

Thulium Safety Data and Biological Role. The safety data for Thulium metalnanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the left margin. Thulium compounds have no biological role. 

Ionization Energy. The ionization energy for Thulium (the least required energy to release a single electron from the atom in it‘s ground state in the gas phase) is stated in the following table:
1st Ionization Energy 59.70 kJ mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy 1162.66 kJ mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy 2284.79 kJ mol-1

Conductivity. As to Thulium‘s electrical and thermal conductivity, the electrical conductivity measured in terms of electrical resistivity @ 20 ?C is 79 ?Ocm and its electronegativities (or its ability to draw electrons relative to other elements) is 1.25. The thermal conductivity of Thulium is 16.8 W m-1 K-1. 

Thermal Properties of Thulium. The melting point and boiling point for Thulium are stated below. The following chart sets forth the heat of fusion, heat of vaporization and heat of atomization.
Heat of Fusion 18.4 kJ mol-1
Heat of Vaporization 247 kJ mol-1
Heat of Atomization 233.43 kJ mol-1

Formula Atomic Number Molecular Weight Electronegativity (Pauling) Density Melting Point Boiling Point Vanderwaals radius Ionic radius Energy of first ionization
Tm 69 168.93 g.mol-1 1.2 9.3 at 20 °C 1545 °C 1947 °C unknown unknown 595.3 kJ.mol-1