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Californium , including Technical Data, Safety Data and its High Purity propertiesresearch, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure,ionization energyabundance on Earthconductivity and thermal properties are included. 

Californium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 7 element. The number of electrons in each of Californium‘s shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 28, 8, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Rn] 5f10 7s2. In its elemental form californium‘s CAS number is 7440-71-3. The californium atom has a radius of and it‘s Van der Waals radius is Californium is radioactive and therefore harmful.

Californium is used as a neutron emitter which provides nuclear reactors with neutrons for start-up. 

Californium is produced from particle accelerators and nuclear reactors. Californium was discovered by Stanley G. Thompson, Kenneth Street Jr. and Albert Ghiorso  in 1950. The element was named in honor of the state of California and for the Univeristy of California, Berkeley, USA. 

Californium Safety Data. The safety data for californium metalnanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the left margin. Californium compounds have no biological role. 

Ionization Energy. The ionization energy for californium (the least required energy to release a single electron from the atom in it‘s ground state in the gas phase) is stated in the following table:
1st Ionization Energy 607.86 kJ mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy - kJ mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy - kJ mol-1

Conductivity. As to californium‘s electrical and thermal conductivity, the electrical conductivity measured in terms of electrical resistivity @ 20 ?C is - ?Ocm and its electronegativities (or its ability to draw electrons relative to other elements) is -. The thermal conductivity of californium is - W m-1 K-1. 

Thermal Properties of Californium. The melting point and boiling point for californium are stated below. The following chart sets forth the heat of fusion, heat of vaporization and heat of atomization.
Heat of Fusion - kJ mol-1
Heat of Vaporization - kJ mol-1
Heat of Atomization 175 kJ mol-1

Formula Atomic Number Molecular Weight Electronegativity (Pauling) Density Melting Point Boiling Point Vanderwaals radius Ionic radius Energy of first ionization
Cf 98 (251) g.mol -1 - - g/L 900? °C - °C .200 nm - pm 607.86 kJ.mol-1