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Aluminum , including Technical Data, Safety Data and its High Purity properties, research, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure,ionization energyabundance on Earthconductivity and thermal properties are included. 

Aluminum is a silvery-white metal that possesses many desirable characteristics. It is light, nonmagnetic and nonsparking. It stands second among metals in the scale of malleability, and sixth in ductility. It is extensively used in many industrial applications where a strong, light, easily constructed material is needed. Although it‘s electrical conductivity is only about 60% that of copper, it is used in electrical transmission lines because of its light weight. Pure aluminum is soft and lacks strength, but alloyed with small amounts of copper , magnesium , silicon , manganese , or other elements impart a variety of useful properties. These alloys are of vital importance in the construction of modern aircraft and rockets. Aluminum, evaporated in a vacuum, forms a highly reflective coating for both visible light and radiant heat. They are used to coat telescope mirrors. Aluminum is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.9999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form offoil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder

Highly stable low oxidizing metals such as gold, iridiumaluminum and titanium are used in a host of medical applications, such as to create body implants and in regenerative medicine.

Aluminum facts, including appearance, CAS #, and molecular formula and safety data, research and properties are available for many specific states, forms and shapes on the product pages listed to the left. Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Aluminum is not known to be harmful but ingestion may cause Alzheimer’s disease. 

Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble.Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Aluminum is available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are also manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries. 

Aluminum is a Block P, Group 13, Period 3 element. The number of electrons in each of Aluminum‘s shells is 2, 8, 3 and its electronic configuration is [Ne] 3s2 3p1. In its elemental form aluminum‘s CAS number is 7429-90-5. The aluminum atom has a radius of and it‘s Van der Waals radius is Aluminum is the third most abundant element in the Earth‘s crust and the most abundant metallic element. 

All elemental metals, compounds and solutions may be synthesized in ultra high purity (e.g. 99.999%)for laboratory standards, advanced electronic, thin fillm deposition usingsputtering targets and evaporation materials, metallurgy and optical materials and other high technology applications. Information is provided for stable (non-radioactive) isotopesOrgano-Metallic Aluminum compounds are soluble in organic or non-aqueous solvents. See Analytical Services for information on available certified chemical and physical analysis techniques including MS-ICP, X-Ray Diffraction, PSD and Surface Area (BET) analysis. 

Aluminum was first synthesized by Hans Christian Oersted in 1825, but its discovery was initially made by an Englishman, Sir Humphrey Davy, who also named the metal for alumina, the mineral from which he was attempting to refine it, in 1812- the year he was knighted.

Abundance. The following table shows the abundance of aluminum and each of its naturally occurringisotopes on Earth along with the atomic mass for each isotope.
Isotope Atomic Mass % Abundance on Earth
Al-27 26.9815384 100

The following table shows the abundance of Aluminum present in the human body and in the universe scaled to parts per billion (ppb) by weight and by atom:
  Typical Human Body Universe
by Weight 900 ppb 50000 ppb
by Atom 210 ppb 2000 ppb

Safety Data and Biological Role. The safety data for aluminum metalnanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the left margin. Aluminum compounds may be involved with the action of enzymes. 

Ionization Energy. The ionization energy for aluminum (the least required energy to release a single electron from the atom in it‘s ground state in the gas phase) is stated in the following table:
1st Ionization Energy 577.54 kJ mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy 1816.69 kJ mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy 2744.80 kJ mol-1

Conductivity. As to aluminum‘s electrical and thermal conductivity, the electrical conductivity measured as to electrical resistivity @ 20 ?C is 2.65 μΩcm and its electronegativities (or its ability to draw electrons relative to other elements) is 1.61. The thermal conductivity of aluminum is 237 W m-1 K-1. 

Thermal Properties. The melting point and boiling point for aluminum are stated below. The following chart sets forth the heat of fusion, heat of vaporization and heat of atomization.
Heat of Fusion 10.67 kJ mol-1
Heat of Vaporization 290.8 kJ mol-1
Heat of Atomization 324.01 kJ mol-1

Formula Atomic Number Molecular Weight Electronegativity (Pauling) Density Melting Point Boiling Point Vanderwaals radius Ionic radius Energy of first ionization
Al 13 26.98154 g.mol -1 1.61 2.7 at 20 °C 660.4 °C 2467 °C 0.05 nm 577.54 kJ.mol-1