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Phosphorus , including Technical Data, Safety Data and its high purity propertiesresearch, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure,ionization energyabundance on Earthconductivity and thermal properties are included. 

Phosphorus is a Block P, Group 15, Period 3 element. The number of electrons in each of Phosphorus‘s shells is 2, 8, 5 and its electronic configuration is [Ne] 3s23p3. In its elemental form Phosphorus‘s CAS number is 7723-14-0. The Phosphorus atom has a radius of and it‘s Van der Waals radius is Although white phosphorus is very toxic, red phosphorus is not considered toxic. 

Phosphorus is found in many minerals, mostly phosphates. Phosphorus was discovered by Hennig Brandt  in 1669. Phosphorus glows in the dark and was therefore named after the Greek ‘phosphoros‘ meaning bringer of the light.

Phosphorus Abundance. The following table shows the abundance of Phosphorus and each of its naturally occurring isotopes on Earth along with the atomic mass for each isotope.
Isotope Atomic Mass % Abundance on Earth
P-31 30.9737615 100

The following table shows the abundance of Phosphorus present in the human body and in the universe scaled to parts per billion (ppb) by weight and by atom:
  Typical Human Body Universe
by Weight 11000000 ppb 7000 ppb
by Atom 2200000 ppb 300 ppb

Phosphorus Safety Data. The safety data for Phosphorus metalnanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the left margin. Phosphorus compounds have vital biological role in the composition of bones and teeth, as well as biological molecules such as DNA and RNA. 

Ionization Energy. The ionization energy for Phosphorus (the least required energy to release a single electron from the atom in it‘s ground state in the gas phase) is stated in the following table:
1st Ionization Energy 1011.82 kJ mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy 1907.47 kJ mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy 2914.14 kJ mol-1

Conductivity. As to Phosphorus‘s electrical and thermal conductivity, the electrical conductivity measured in terms of electrical resistivity @ 20 ?C is 1E+17 ?Ocm and its electronegativities (or its ability to draw electrons relative to other elements) is 2.19. The thermal conductivity of Phosphorus is 0.235 W m-1 K-1. 

Thermal Properties of Phosphorus. The melting point and boiling point for Phosphorus are statedbelow. The following chart sets forth the heat of fusion, heat of vaporization and heat of atomization.
Heat of Fusion 2.51 kJ mol-1
Heat of Vaporization 51.9 kJ mol-1
Heat of Atomization 314 kJ mol-1

Formula Atomic Number Molecular Weight Electronegativity (Pauling) Density Melting Point Boiling Point Vanderwaals radius Ionic radius Energy of first ionization
P 15 30.973762 g.mol-1 2.19 - g/L 44.2? °C 277 °C .180 nm - pm 1011.82 kJ.mol-1