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Calcium , including Technical Data, Safety Data and its High Purity propertiesresearch, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure,ionization energyabundance on Earthconductivity and thermal properties are included. 

Calcium is a member of the alkaline earth elements. Calcium is an essential metal for living organisms and is non-toxic. Its primary commercial application is in its metallic form as a reducing agent in the production of other metals. In iron and steel production it is added to the melt to remove oxygen, sulfur and carbon. The various calcium compounds have wide application in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics. It is used in small doses in alloys of copper and beryllium. It is used in dietary supplements and food production because it has been shown to improve bone and dental health.

Calcium facts, including appearance, CAS #, and molecular formula and safety data, research and properties are available for many specific states, forms and shapes on the product pages listed to the left. Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes.Nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. 

Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Calcium is available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are also manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries. 

Calcium is a Block S, Group 2, Period 4 element. The number of electrons in each of Calcium‘s shells is 2, 8, 8, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Ar] 4s2. In its elemental form calcium‘s CAS number is 7440-70-2. The calcium atom has a radius of and it‘s Van der Waals radius is Calcium is a reactive, soft metal. 
All elemental metals, compounds and solutions may be synthesized in ultra high purity(e.g. 99.999%) for laboratory standards, advanced electronic, thin fillm deposition usingsputtering targets and evaporation materials, metallurgy and optical materials and other high technology applications. Information is provided for stable (non-radioactive)isotopesOrgano-Metallic Calcium compounds are soluble in organic or non-aqueous solvents. See Analytical Services for information on available certified chemical and physical analysis techniques including MS-ICP, X-Ray Diffraction, PSD and Surface Area (BET) analysis. 

Calcium was first discovered by Sir Humphrey Davy in 1808. The name calcium originates from the Latin word ‘calics‘ meaning lime.

Abundance. The following table shows the abundance of calcium and each of its naturally occurring isotopeson Earth along with the atomic mass for each isotope.

Isotope Atomic Mass % Abundance on Earth
Ca-40 39.9625911 96.94
Ca-42 41.9586183 0.65
Ca-43 42.9587668 0.14
Ca-44 43.9554811 2.09
Ca-46 45.953693 0.01
Ca-48 47.952534 0.19

The following table shows the abundance of Calcium present in the human body and in the universe scaled to parts per billion (ppb) by weight and by atom:
  Typical Human Body Universe
by Weight 14000000 ppb 70000 ppb
by Atom 2200000 ppb 2000 ppb

Safety Data and Biological Role. The safety data for calcium metalnanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the left margin. Calciumcompounds have an essential biological role for all life. Calcium helps form cell walls and bones, and is an important component in the coagulation of blood. 

Ionization Energy. The ionization energy for calcium (the least required energy to release a single electron from the atom in it‘s ground state in the gas phase) is stated in the following table:
1st Ionization Energy 589.83 kJ mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy 1145.46 kJ mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy 4912.40 kJ mol-1

Conductivity. As to calcium‘s electrical and thermal conductivity, the electrical conductivity measured as to electrical resistivity @ 20 ?C is 3.91 μΩcm and its electronegativities (or its ability to draw electrons relative to other elements) is 1. The thermal conductivity of calcium is 190 W m-1 K-1. 

Thermal Properties. The melting point and boiling point for calcium are stated below. The following chart sets forth the heat of fusion, heat of vaporization and heat of atomization.
Heat of Fusion 9.33 kJ mol-1
Heat of Vaporization 150.6 kJ mol-1
Heat of Atomization 177.74 kJ mol-1