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Titanium , including Technical Data, Safety Data and its high purity propertiesresearch, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure,ionization energyabundance on Earthconductivity and thermal properties are included. 

Titanium primary uses come from two useful properties. Titanium is available as metaland compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. In its metallic form it is not only very strong and light weight, but also highly resistant to corrosion. Thus it can be found in numerous aerospace and military applications. In its oxide form it used in low grades to produce a white pigment. Titanium is the bases for numerous commercially essential comound groups, such as barium titanates in electronic and di-electric formulations and in crystal growth for ruby and sapphire lasers. 

Highly stable low oxidizing metals such as gold, iridiumaluminum and titanium are used in a host of medical applications, such as to create body implants and in regenerative medicine. Titanium was named after the word Titanos which is Greek for Titans. 

Titanium facts, including appearance, CAS #, and molecular formula and safety data, research and properties are available for many specific states, forms and shapes on the product pages listed to the left. Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes.Nanoparticles and nanopowdersprovide ultra high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. 

Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Titanium is available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are also manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries. 

Titanium is a Block D, Group 4, Period 4 element. The number of electrons in each of Titanium‘s shells is 2, 8, 10, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Ar] 3d2 4s2. In its elemental form titanium‘s CAS number is 7440-32-6. The titanium atom has a radius of and it‘s Van der Waals radius is Titanium metal is not considered to be toxic although titanium as metal shavings or powder is considered a fire hazard. 

All elemental metals, compounds and solutions may be synthesized in ultra high purity (e.g. 99.999%) for laboratory standards, advanced electronic, thin fillm deposition using sputtering targets and evaporation materials, metallurgy and optical materials and other high technology applications. Information is provided for stable (non-radioactive) isotopesOrgano-Metallic Titanium compounds are soluble in organic or non-aqueous solvents. SeeAnalytical Services for information on available certified chemical and physical analysis techniques including MS-ICP, X-Ray Diffraction, PSD and Surface Area (BET) analysis. 

Titanium is found in igneous rocks and the sediments derived from them. Titanium was first discovered by William Gregor in 1791.

Abundance. The following table shows the abundance of titanium and each of its naturally occurringisotopes on Earth along with the atomic mass for each isotope.
Isotope Atomic Mass % Abundance on Earth
Ti-46 45.952629 8.0
Ti-47 46.951764 7.3
Ti-48 47.947947 73.8
Ti-49 48.947871 5.5
Ti-50 49.944792 5.4

The following table shows the abundance of Titanium present in the human body and in the universe scaled to parts per billion (ppb) by weight and by atom:
  Typical Human Body Universe
by Weight no data 3000 ppb
by Atom no data 80 ppb

Safety Data and Biological Role. The safety data for titanium metalnanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the left margin. Titanium compounds have no biological role but the metal is regarded as hypoallergenic. 

Ionization Energy. The ionization energy for titanium (the least required energy to release a single electron from the atom in it‘s ground state in the gas phase) is stated in the following table:
1st Ionization Energy 658.82 kJ mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy 1309.85 kJ mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy 2652.56 kJ mol-1

Conductivity. As to titanium‘s electrical and thermal conductivity, the electrical conductivity measured as to electrical resistivity @ 20 ?C is 42 μΩcm and its electronegativities (or its ability to draw electrons relative to other elements) is 1.54. The thermal conductivity of titanium is 21.9 W m-1 K-1. 

Thermal Properties. The melting point and boiling point for titanium are stated below. The following chart sets forth the heat of fusion, heat of vaporization and heat of atomization.
Heat of Fusion 20.9 kJ mol-1
Heat of Vaporization 425.5 kJ mol-1
Heat of Atomization 467.14 kJ mol-1

Formula Atomic Number Molecular Weight Electronegativity (Pauling) Density Melting Point Boiling Point Vanderwaals radius Ionic radius Energy of first ionization
Ti 22 47.90 g.mol-1 1.5 4.51 at 20 °C 1660 °C 3287 °C 0.09 nm (+2) ; 0.068 nm (+4) 658.82 kJ.mol-1