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Manganese , including Technical Data, Safety Data and its high purity propertiesresearch, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure,ionization energyabundance on Earthconductivity and thermal properties are included. 

Manganese has numerous low and high tech applications. Manganese is available asmetal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds assubmicron and nanopowder. Manganese metal is a key component of aluminum alloys. Manganese oxide is used in dry cell batteries. Manganese is used in steel production to remove sulfur and oxygen. Manganese is the colorant in natural amethyst stones and is used in glass and ceramics to also create the amethyst color. It is used like the element Cerium to "decolorize" glass by offsetting the green from impurities of ferric ions. Permanganate is a powerful oxidizing agent and is used in medicine. It is added as a nutritional supplement for both human and animal consumption. Recently, the oxide in the form of various perovskite structures have demonstrated applications in oxygen generation and solid oxide fuel cells

Manganese facts, including appearance, CAS #, and molecular formula and safety data, research and properties are available for many specific states, forms and shapes on the product pages listed to the left. Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. 

Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Manganese is available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are also manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries. 

Manganese is a Block D, Group 7, Period 4 element. The number of electrons in each of Manganese‘s shells is 2, 8, 13, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Ar] 3d5 4s2. In its elemental form manganese‘s CAS number is 7439-96-5. The manganese atom has a radius of and it‘s Van der Waals radius is Manganese in excess is toxic, in particular the inhalation of manganese in powder or dust form. 

All elemental metals, compounds and solutions may be synthesized in ultra high purity (e.g. 99.999%) for laboratory standards, advanced electronic, thin fillm deposition using sputtering targets and evaporation materials, metallurgy and optical materials and other high technology applications. Information is provided for stable (non-radioactive) isotopesOrgano-Metallic Manganese compounds are soluble in organic or non-aqueous solvents. See Analytical Services for information on available certified chemical and physical analysis techniques including MS-ICP, X-Ray Diffraction, PSD and Surface Area (BET) analysis. 

Manganese was first discovered by Johann Gahn in 1774. Manganese is found in pyrolusite, braunite, psilomelane, and rhodochrosite. The name Manganese originates from the Latin word mangnes meaning magnet.

Abundance. The following table shows the abundance of manganese and each of its naturally occurring isotopes on Earth along with the atomic mass for each isotope.

Isotope Atomic Mass % Abundance on Earth
Mn-55 54.938050 100

The following table shows the abundance of Manganese present in the human body and in the universe scaled to parts per billion (ppb) by weight and by atom:
  Typical Human Body Universe
by Weight 200 ppb 8000 ppb
by Atom 23 ppb 200 ppb

Safety Data and Biological Role. The safety data for manganese metalnanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the left margin. Manganese compounds have vital biological role in some enzymes. 

Ionization Energy. The ionization energy for manganese (the least required energy to release a single electron from the atom in it‘s ground state in the gas phase) is stated in the following table:
1st Ionization Energy 717.28 kJ mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy 1509.04 kJ mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy 3248.49 kJ mol-1

Conductivity. As to manganese‘s electrical and thermal conductivity, the electrical conductivity measured as to electrical resistivity @ 20 ?C is 144 μΩcm and its electronegativities (or its ability to draw electrons relative to other elements) is 1.55. The thermal conductivity of manganese is 7.82 W m-1K-1. 

Thermal Properties. The melting point and boiling point for manganese are stated below. The following chart sets forth the heat of fusion, heat of vaporization and heat of atomization.
Heat of Fusion 14.4 kJ mol-1
Heat of Vaporization 220.5 kJ mol-1
Heat of Atomization 279.37 kJ mol-1