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Cobalt , including Technical Data, Safety Data and its High Purity propertiesresearch, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure,ionization energyabundance on Earthconductivity and thermal properties are included.

Cobalt has a metallic permeability two thirds that of iron. It exists as a mixture of two allotropes over a wide temperature range. The transformation is slow and accounts in part for the wide variation in the physical properties of cobalt. It is alloyed with iron, nickel and other metals to make Alnico, an alloy of unusual magnetic strength with many important uses. Samarium-cobalt is one of the highest strength magnet alloys known. Cobalt compounds produce a brilliant and permanent blue color in ceramic glazes, glass, pottery, tiles, and enamels. Co-60 is useful as a gamma ray source. Toxicity of cobalt and its compounds are mild by skin contact and moderate by ingestion. Cobalt is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder.

Cobalt facts, including appearance, CAS #, and molecular formula and safety data, research and properties are available for many specific states, forms and shapes on the product pages listed to the left. Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes.Nanoparticles and nanopowdersprovide ultra high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. 

Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Cobalt is available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are also manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries. 

Cobalt is a Block D, Group 9, Period 4 element. The number of electrons in each of Cobalt‘s shells is 2, 8, 15, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Ar] 3d7 4s2. In its elemental form cobalt‘s CAS number is 7440-48-4. The cobalt atom has a radius of and it‘s Van der Waals radius is Cobalt and its compounds are somewhat toxic by skin contact and moderately toxic by inhalation. 

All elemental metals, compounds and solutions may be synthesized in ultra high purity (e.g. 99.999%) for laboratory standards, advanced electronic, thin fillm deposition using sputtering targets and evaporation materials, metallurgy and optical materials and other high technology applications. Information is provided for stable (non-radioactive) isotopesOrgano-Metallic Cobalt compounds are soluble in organic or non-aqueous solvents. See Analytical Services for information on available certified chemical and physical analysis techniques including MS-ICP, X-Ray Diffraction, PSD and Surface Area (BET) analysis. 

Cobalt is found in cobaltite, erythrite, glaucodot and skutterudite ores. Cobalt is obtained as a by-product of nickel and copper mining. It is not found as a native metal. Cobalt was first discovered by George Brandt in 1737. The origin of the word Cobalt comes from the German word ‘Kobalt or Kobold‘ which translates as "goblin", "elf" or "evil spirit".

Abundance. The following table shows the abundance of cobalt and each of its naturally occurringisotopes on Earth along with the atomic mass for each isotope.
Isotope Atomic Mass % Abundance on Earth
Co-59 58.933200 100

The following table shows the abundance of Cobalt present in the human body and in the universe scaled to parts per billion (ppb) by weight and by atom:
  Typical Human Body Universe
by Weight 20 ppb 3000 ppb
by Atom 2 ppb 60 ppb

Safety Data and Biological Role. The safety data for cobalt metalnanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the left margin. Cobaltcompounds have an important biological role in many life forms, including humans. Cobalt forms the core of vitamin B12. 

Hardness. Cobalt is a hard, brittle metal measuring 5.5 on the Mohs Scale of mineral hardness. 

Ionization Energy. The ionization energy for cobalt (the least required energy to release a single electron from the atom in it‘s ground state in the gas phase) is stated in the following table:
1st Ionization Energy 760.41 kJ mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy 1648.27 kJ mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy 3232.28 kJ mol-1

Conductivity. As to cobalt‘s electrical and thermal conductivity, the electrical conductivity measured as to electrical resistivity @ 20 ?C is 6.24 μΩcm and its electronegativities (or its ability to draw electrons relative to other elements) is 1.88. The thermal conductivity of cobalt is 100 W m-1 K-1. 

Thermal Properties. The melting point and boiling point for cobalt are stated below. The following chart sets forth the heat of fusion, heat of vaporization and heat of atomization.
Heat of Fusion 15.2 kJ mol-1
Heat of Vaporization 382.4 kJ mol-1
Heat of Atomization 423.082 kJ mol-1

Formula Atomic Number Molecular Weight Electronegativity (Pauling) Density Melting Point Boiling Point Vanderwaals radius Ionic radius Energy of first ionization
Co 27 58.9332 g.mol -1 1.8 8.9 at 20 °C 1495 °C 2927 °C 0.078 nm (+2) ; 0.063 nm (+3) 760.41 kJ.mol-1