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Nickel , including Technical Data, Safety Data and its high purity propertiesresearch, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure,ionization energyabundance on Earthconductivity and thermal properties are included. 

Nickel belongs to the iron-cobalt group of metals. Nickel is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. It is extensively used for making stainless steel and other corrosion-resistant alloys. It is highly electronically conductive and has many applications as a result. It is the basis of the nickel hydride battery. Most recently, its conductive properties have made it an ideal component for ceramic anode formulations used in oxygen generation and solid oxide fuel cell applications. Catalytic nickel is used to hydrogenate vegetable oils. Nickel additions to glass and ceramic glazes impart a bright green. It is also used in pigments for this purpose.

Nickel facts, including appearance, CAS #, and molecular formula and safety data, research and properties are 

available for many specific states, forms and shapes on the product pages listed to the left. Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. 

Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Nickel is available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are also manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries. 

Nickel is a Block D, Group 4, Period 4 element. The number of electrons in each of Nickel‘s shells is 2, 8, 16, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Ar]3d8 4s2. In its elemental form nickel‘s CAS number is 7440-02-0. Nickel is sometimes found free in nature but is more commonly found in ores. The nickel atom has a radius of and it‘s Van der Waals radius is Nickel and its compounds are considered to be carcinogenic. Nickel carbonyl is a very toxic gas. 

All elemental metals, compounds and solutions may be synthesized in ultra high purity (e.g. 99.999%) for laboratory standards, advanced electronic, thin fillm deposition using sputtering targets and evaporation materials, metallurgy and optical materials and other high technology applications. Information is provided for stable (non-radioactive) isotopesOrgano-Metallic Nickel compounds are soluble in organic or non-aqueous solvents. See Analytical Services for information on available certified chemical and physical analysis techniques including MS-ICP, X-Ray Diffraction, PSD and Surface Area (BET) analysis. 

The bulk of mined nickel comes from laterite and magmatic sulfide ores. Nickel was first discovered by Alex Constedt in 1751. The name originates from the German word ‘kupfernickel‘ which means false copper from the illusory copper color of the ore.

Nickel Abundance. The following table shows the abundance of nickel and each of its naturally occurring isotopes on Earth along with the atomic mass for each isotope.
Isotope Atomic Mass % Abundance on Earth
Ni-58 57.935 68.08
Ni-60 59.931 26.22
Ni-61 60.931 1.14
Ni-62 61.928 3.63
Ni-64 63.978 0.93

The following table shows the abundance of Nickel present in the human body and in the universe scaled to parts per billion (ppb) by weight and by atom:
  Typical Human Body Universe
by Weight 100 ppb 60000 ppb
by Atom 11 ppb 1000 ppb

Nickel Safety Data and Biological Role. The safety data for nickel metalnanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the left margin. Nickel compounds have significant biological role in chicks and rats, and in plant ureases. Nickel is also found in hydrogenases enzymes in bacteria. 

Ionization Energy. The ionization energy for nickel (the least required energy to release a single electron from the atom in it‘s ground state in the gas phase) is stated in the following table:
1st Ionization Energy 737.13 kJ mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy 1753.04 kJ mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy 3395.34 kJ mol-1

Conductivity. As to nickel‘s electrical and thermal conductivity, the electrical conductivity measured in terms of electrical resistivity @ 20 ?C is 6.84 ?Ocm and its electronegativities (or its ability to draw electrons relative to other elements) is 1.91. The thermal conductivity of nickel is 90.7 W m-1 K-1. 

Thermal Properties of Nickel. The melting point and boiling point for nickel are stated below. The following chart sets forth the heat of fusion, heat of vaporization and heat of atomization.
Heat of Fusion 17.6 kJ mol-1
Heat of Vaporization 374.8 kJ mol-1
Heat of Atomization 427.659 kJ mol-1

Formula Atomic Number Molecular Weight Electronegativity (Pauling) Density Melting Point Boiling Point Vanderwaals radius Ionic radius Energy of first ionization
Ni 28 58.71 g.mol-1 1.8 8.9 at 20 °C 1453 °C 2913 °C 0.124 nm 0.069 nm (+2) ; 0.06 nm (+3) 735 kJ.mol-1