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Germanium , including Technical Data, Safety Data and its high purity propertiesresearch, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure,ionization energyabundance on Earthconductivity and thermal properties are included. 

Germanium is a very important semiconductor. Zone-refining techniques have led to production of crystalline germanium for semiconductor use with extremely high purities. When germanium is doped with arsenic, gallium, or other elements, it is used as a transistor element in thousands of electronic applications. The most common use of germanium is as a semiconductor. Germanium is also finding many other applications including use as an alloying agent, as a phosphor in fluorescent lamps, and as a catalyst. Germanium and germanium oxide are transparent to the infrared and are used in infrared spectroscopes and other optical equipment, including extremely sensitive infrared detectors. The high refractive index and dispersion properties of its oxide‘s have made germanium useful as a component of wide-angle camera lenses and microscope objectives. The field of organo-germanium chemistry is becoming increasingly important. Germanium is available as metaland compounds with purities from 99% to 99.9999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder

Germanium facts, including appearance, CAS #, and molecular formula and safety data, research and properties are available for many specific states, forms and shapes on the product pages listed to the left. Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. 

Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Germanium is available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are also manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries. 

Germanium is a Block P, Group 14, Period 4 element. The number of electrons in each of Germanium‘s shells is 2, 8, 18, 4 and its electronic configuration is [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2. In its elemental form germanium‘s CAS number is 7440-56-4. The germanium atom has a radius of and it‘s Van der Waals radius is Germanium is not toxic. 

All elemental metals, compounds and solutions may be synthesized in ultra high purity (e.g. 99.999%) for laboratory standards, advanced electronic, thin fillm deposition using sputtering targets and evaporation materials, metallurgy and optical materials and other high technology applications. Information is provided for stable (non-radioactive) isotopesOrgano-MetallicGermanium compounds are soluble in organic or non-aqueous solvents. See Analytical Services for information on available certified chemical and physical analysis techniques including MS-ICP, X-Ray Diffraction, PSD and Surface Area (BET) analysis. 

Germanium is produced mainly from sphalerite but is also found in silver, lead, and copper ores. Germanium was first discovered by Clemens Winkler in 1886. The name Germanium originates from the Latin word "Germania" meaning "Germany".

Abundance. The following table shows the abundance of germanium and each of its naturally occurringisotopes on Earth along with the atomic mass for each isotope.
Isotope Atomic Mass % Abundance on Earth
Ge-70 69.924250 21.23
Ge-72 71.922076 27.66
Ge-73 72.923459 7.73
Ge-74 73.921178 35.94
Ge-76 75.921403 7.44

The following table shows the abundance of Germanium present in the human body and in the universe scaled to parts per billion (ppb) by weight and by atom:
  Typical Human Body Universe
by Weight no data 200 ppb
by Atom no data 3 ppb

Safety Data and Biological Role. The safety data for germanium metalnanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the left margin. Germanium compounds have no biological role. 

Ionization Energy. The ionization energy for germanium (the least required energy to release a single electron from the atom in it‘s ground state in the gas phase) is stated in the following table:
1st Ionization Energy 762.18 kJ mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy 1537.47 kJ mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy 3302.15 kJ mol-1

Conductivity. As to germanium‘s electrical and thermal conductivity, the electrical conductivity measured as to electrical resistivity @ 20 ?C is 46000000 μΩcm and its electronegativities (or its ability to draw electrons relative to other elements) is 2.01. The thermal conductivity of germanium is 122.5 W m-1 K-1.

Thermal Properties. The melting point and boiling point for germanium are stated below. The following chart sets forth the heat of fusion, heat of vaporization and heat of atomization.
Heat of Fusion 34.7 kJ mol-1
Heat of Vaporization 327.6 kJ mol-1
Heat of Atomization 373.8 kJ mol-1

Formula Atomic Number Molecular Weight Electronegativity (Pauling) Density Melting Point Boiling Point Vanderwaals radius Ionic radius Energy of first ionization
Ge 32 72.59 g.mol -1 1.8 5.3 at 20 °C 937 °C 2830 °C 0.093 nm (+2) ; 0.054 (+4) 762.18 kJ.mol-1