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Rubidium, including Technical Data, Safety Data and its high purity propertiesresearch, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure,ionization energyabundance on Earthconductivity and thermal properties are included. 

Rubidium has various applications in medicine and in photoelectronics. Rubidium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. It is used in photo and detection cells production. Rubidiumglass compositions have the highest room temperature conductivity. It has been used as a "getter" in vacuum tubes. 

Rubidium facts, including appearance, CAS #, and molecular formula and safety data, research and properties are available for many specific states, forms and shapes on the product pages listed to the left. Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. 

Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Rubidium is available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are also manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries. 

Rubidium is a Block S, Group 1, Period 5 element. The number of electrons in each of Rubidium‘s shells is 2, 8, 18, 8, 1 and its electronic configuration is [Kr] 5s1. In its elemental form rubidium ‘s CAS number is 7440-17-7. The rubidium atom has a radius of and it‘s Van der Waals radius is Rubidium is not toxic. 

All elemental metals, compounds and solutions may be synthesized in ultra high purity (e.g. 99.999%) for laboratory standards, advanced electronic, thin fillm deposition using sputtering targets and evaporation materials, metallurgy and optical materials and other high technology applications. Information is provided for stable (non-radioactive) isotopesOrgano-Metallic Rubidium compounds are soluble in organic or non-aqueous solvents. See Analytical Services for information on available certified chemical and physical analysis techniques including MS-ICP, X-Ray Diffraction, PSD and Surface Area (BET) analysis. 

Rubidium was first discovered by Robert Wilhem Bunsen and Gustav Robert Kirchhoff in 1861. The name Rubidium, originates from the Latin word ‘Rubidius‘ which means dark or deepest red.

Abundance. The following table shows the abundance of rubidium and each of its naturally occurringisotopes on Earth along with the atomic mass for each isotope.
Isotope Atomic Mass % Abundance on Earth
Rb-85 84.911789 72.17
Rb-87 86.909183 27.84

The following table shows the abundance of Rubidium present in the human body and in the universe scaled to parts per billion (ppb) by weight and by atom:
  Typical Human Body Universe
by Weight 4600 ppb 10 ppb
by Atom 340 ppb 0.1 ppb

Safety Data and Biological Role. The safety data for rubidium metalnanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the left margin. Rubidium compounds have no biological role. 

Ionization Energy. The ionization energy for rubidium (the least required energy to release a single electron from the atom in it‘s ground state in the gas phase) is stated in the following table:
1st Ionization Energy 403.03 kJ mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy 2632.62 kJ mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy 3859.44 kJ mol-1

Conductivity. As to rubidium ‘s electrical and thermal conductivity, the electrical conductivity measured as to electrical resistivity @ 20 ?C is 12.5 μΩcm and its electronegativities (or its ability to draw electrons relative to other elements) is 0.82. The thermal conductivity of rubidium is 52.8 W m-1 K-1. 

Thermal Properties. The melting point and boiling point for rubidium are stated below. The following chart sets forth the heat of fusion, heat of vaporization and heat of atomization.
Heat of Fusion 2.2 kJ mol-1
Heat of Vaporization 75.7 kJ mol-1
Heat of Atomization 82.17 kJ mol-1

Formula Atomic Number Molecular Weight Electronegativity (Pauling) Density Melting Point Boiling Point Vanderwaals radius Ionic radius Energy of first ionization
Rb 37 9.0983 g.mol-1 0.8 1.53 at 20 °C 39 °C 696 °C 0.149 nm (+1) 403.03 kJ.mol-1