Home > Product list > Y


Yttrium , including Technical Data, Safety Data and its high purity propertiesresearch, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure,ionization energyabundance on Earthconductivity and thermal properties are included. 

Yttrium has the highest thermo-dynamic affinity for oxygen of any element. This characteristic is the basis for many of its applications. Yttrium is not found in nature as a free element and is almost always found combined with the lanthanides in rare earth minerals. While not part of the rare earth series, it resembles the heavy rare earths which are sometimes referred to as the "yttrics" for this reason. Another unique characteristic derives from its ability to form crystals with useful properties. Yttrium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds florescent lighting phosphors, computer displays and automotive fuel consumption sensors.Yttria stabilized zirconium oxide are used in high temperature applications, such as in thermal plasma sprays to protect aerospace high temperature surfaces and as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells. Crystals of the yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) variety are essential to microwave communication equipment. The phosphor Eu:Y2O2S creates the red color in televisions. Crystals of the yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) variety are utilized with neodymium in a number of laser applications. Yttria can also increase the strength of metallic alloys.

 Yttrium facts, including appearance, CAS #, and molecular formula and safety data, research and properties are available for many specific states, forms and shapes on the product pages listed to the left. Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes.Nanoparticles and nanopowdersprovide ultra high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. 

Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Yttrium is available in soluble forms includingchlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are also manufactured assolutions at specified stoichiometries. 

Yttrium is a Block D, Group 3, Period 5 element. The number of electrons in each of Yttrium‘s shells is 2, 8, 18, 9, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Kr] 4d1 5s2. In its elemental form yttrium‘s CAS number is 7440-65-5. The yttrium atom has a radius of and it‘s Van der Waals radius is Insoluble compounds of Yttrium are non-toxic, although water soluble compounds are somewhat toxic. 

All elemental metals, compounds and solutions may be synthesized in ultra high purity (e.g. 99.999%) for laboratory standards, advanced electronic, thin fillm deposition using sputtering targets and evaporation materials, metallurgy and optical materials and other high technology applications. Information is provided for stable (non-radioactive) isotopesOrgano-Metallic Yttrium compounds are soluble in organic or non-aqueous solvents. See Analytical Services for information on available certified chemical and physical analysis techniques including MS-ICP, X-Ray Diffraction, PSD and Surface Area (BET) analysis. 

Yttrium was first discovered by Johann Gadolin in 1794. The name Yttrium originated from a Swedish village near Vaxholm called Yttbery where Yttrium was discovered.

Abundance. The following table shows the abundance of yttrium and each of its naturally occurringisotopes on Earth along with the atomic mass for each isotope.

Isotope Atomic Mass % Abundance on Earth
Y-89 88.905848 100

The following table shows the abundance of Yttrium present in the human body and in the universe scaled to parts per billion (ppb) by weight and by atom:
  Typical Human Body Universe
by Weight no data 7 ppb
by Atom no data 0.1 ppb

Safety Data and Biological Role. The safety data for yttrium metalnanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the left margin. Yttriumcompounds have no biological role. 

Ionization Energy. The ionization energy for yttrium (the least required energy to release a single electron from the atom in it‘s ground state in the gas phase) is stated in the following table:
1st Ionization Energy 599.86 kJ mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy 1180.99 kJ mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy 1979.89 kJ mol-1

Conductivity. As to yttrium‘s electrical and thermal conductivity, the electrical conductivity measured as to electrical resistivity @ 20 ?C is 57 μΩcm and its electronegativities (or its ability to draw electrons relative to other elements) is 1.22. The thermal conductivity of yttrium is 17.2 W m-1 K-1. 

Thermal Properties. The melting point and boiling point for yttrium are stated below. The following chart sets forth the heat of fusion, heat of vaporization and heat of atomization.
Heat of Fusion 17.2 kJ mol-1
Heat of Vaporization 367.4 kJ mol-1
Heat of Atomization 420.45 kJ mol-1