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Zirconium, including Technical Data, Safety Data and its high purity propertiesresearch, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure,ionization energyabundance on Earthconductivity and thermal properties are included. 

Zirconium’s principal mineral is zircon (Zirconium Silicate) and is primarily used in itsoxide or zirconia form. Zirconium dioxide has a high melting point (2,700° C) and a low thermal conductivity. Its polymorphism, however, restricts its widespread use in ceramic industry. During a heating process, zirconia will undergo a phase transformation process. The change in volume associated with this transformation makes the usage of pure zirconia in many applications impossible. Addition of some oxides, such as CaO, MgO, and Y2O3, into the zirconia structure in a certain degree results in a solid solution, which is a cubic form and has no phase transformation during heating and cooling. This solid solution material is termed as stabilized zirconia, a valuable refractory. Stabilized zirconia is used as a grinding media and engineering ceramics due to its increased hardness and high thermal shock resistivity. Stabilized zirconia is also used in applications such as oxygen sensors and solid oxide fuel cells due to its high oxygen ion conductivity.

Zirconium facts, including appearance, CAS #, and molecular formula and safety data, research and properties are available for many specific states, forms and shapes on the product pages listed to the left. Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. 

Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Zirconium is available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are also manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries. 

Zirconium is a Block D, Group 4, Period 5 element. The number of electrons in each of Zirconium‘s shells is 2, 8, 18, 10, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Kr] 4d2 5s2. In its elemental form zirconium‘s CAS number is 7440-67-7. The zirconium atom has a radius of and it‘s Van der Waals radius is Zirconium is non-toxic. 

All elemental metals, compounds and solutions may be synthesized in ultra high purity (e.g. 99.999%) for laboratory standards, advanced electronic, thin fillm deposition using sputtering targets and evaporation materials, metallurgy and optical materials and other high technology applications. Information is provided for stable (non-radioactive) isotopesOrgano-Metallic Zirconium compounds are soluble in organic or non-aqueous solvents. See Analytical Services for information on available certified chemical and physical analysis techniques including MS-ICP, X-Ray Diffraction, PSD and Surface Area (BET) analysis. 

Zirconium is produced as a by-product of titanium and tin mining. It is not found in nature as a native metal. Zirconium was first discovered by William Gregor in 1791. The name Zirconium originated from the Persian word ‘zargun‘ meaning gold color or gold-like. See Zirconium research below.

Abundance. The following table shows the abundance of zirconium and each of its naturally occurringisotopes on Earth along with the atomic mass for each isotope.
Isotope Atomic Mass % Abundance on Earth
Zr-90 89.904704 51.45
Zr-91 90.905645 11.22
Zr-92 91.905040 17.15
Zr-94 93.906316 17.38
Zr-96 95.908276 2.80

The following table shows the abundance of Zirconium present in the human body and in the universe scaled to parts per billion (ppb) by weight and by atom:
  Typical Human Body Universe
by Weight 50 ppb 50 ppb
by Atom 3 ppb 0.7 ppb

Safety Data and Biological Role . The safety data for zirconium metalnanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the left margin. Zirconium compounds have little effect on human tissue making them suitable for artifical joints and limbs. 

Ionization Energy. The ionization energy for zirconium (the least required energy to release a single electron from the atom in it‘s ground state in the gas phase) is stated in the following table:
1st Ionization Energy 640.08 kJ mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy 1266.86 kJ mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy 2218.21 kJ mol-1

Conductivity. As to zirconium‘s electrical and thermal conductivity, the electrical conductivity measured as to electrical resistivity @ 20 ?C is 42.1 μΩcm and its electronegativities (or its ability to draw electrons relative to other elements) is 1.33. The thermal conductivity of zirconium is 22.7 W m-1 K-1. 

Thermal Properties. The melting point and boiling point for zirconium are stated below. The following chart sets forth the heat of fusion, heat of vaporization and heat of atomization.
Heat of Fusion 23 kJ mol-1
Heat of Vaporization 566.7 kJ mol-1
Heat of Atomization 607.47 kJ mol-1

Formula Atomic Number Molecular Weight Electronegativity (Pauling) Density Melting Point Boiling Point Vanderwaals radius Ionic radius Energy of first ionization
Zr 40 91.22 g.mol -1 1.2 6.49 at 20 °C 1852 °C 4400 °C 0.08 nm (+4) 640.08 kJ.mol-1