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Ruthenium , including Technical Data, Safety Data and its high purity propertiesresearch, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure,ionization energyabundance on Earthconductivity and thermal properties are included. 

Ruthenium is member of the platinum group of metals. It is one of the most effective hardeners for platinum and palladium , and is alloyed with these metals to make electrical contacts for severe wear resistanant electronics and laboratory equipment. The corrosion resistance of titanium is improved a hundredfold by addition of 0.1% ruthenium. It is also a versatile catalyst. Hydrogen sulfide can be split catalytically by light using an aqueous suspension of cadmium sulfide particles loaded withruthenium dioxide. It is also believed to have pharmacological applications. Ruthenium is available asmetal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder.

Ruthenium facts, including appearance, CAS #, and molecular formula and safety data, research and properties are available for many specific states, forms and shapes on the product pages listed to the left. Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. 

Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluoridesare another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Ruthenium is available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are also manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Ruthenium is a Block D, Group 8, Period 5 element. The number of electrons in each of Ruthenium‘s shells is 2, 8, 18, 15, 1 and its electronic configuration is [Kr] 4d7 5s1. In its elemental form ruthenium‘s CAS number is 7440-18-8. The ruthenium atom has a radius of and it‘s Van der Waals radius is Ruthenium tetroxide (RuO4) is very toxic and Ruthenium in its elemental form is considered carcinogen.

All elemental metals, compounds and solutions may be synthesized in ultra high purity (e.g. 99.999%) for laboratory standards, advanced electronic, thin fillm deposition using sputtering targets and evaporation materials, metallurgy and optical materials and other high technology applications. Information is provided for stable (non-radioactive)isotopesOrgano-Metallic Ruthenium compounds are soluble in organic or non-aqueous solvents. See Analytical Services for information on available certified chemical and physical analysis techniques including MS-ICP, X-Ray Diffraction, PSD and Surface Area (BET) analysis. 

Ruthenium was first discovered by Karl Klaus in 1844. The name Ruthenium, originates from the Latin word ‘Ruthenia‘ meaning Russia.

Abundance. The following table shows the abundance of ruthenium and each of its naturally occurringisotopes on Earth along with the atomic mass for each isotope.
Isotope Atomic Mass % Abundance on Earth
Ru-96 95.907598 5.52
Ru-98 97.905287 1.88
Ru-99 98.905939 12.7
Ru-100 99.904220 12.6
Ru-101 100.905582 17.0
Ru-102 101.904350 31.6
Ru-104 103.905430 18.7

The following table shows the abundance of Rubidium present in the human body and in the universe scaled to parts per billion (ppb) by weight and by atom:
  Typical Human Body Universe
by Weight no data 4 ppb
by Atom no data 0.05 ppb

Safety Data and Biological Role. The safety data for ruthenium metalnanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the left margin. Ruthenium compounds have no biological role. 

Ionization Energy. The ionization energy for ruthenium (the least required energy to release a single electron from the atom in it‘s ground state in the gas phase) is stated in the following table:
1st Ionization Energy 710.19 kJ mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy 1617.11 kJ mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy 2746.96 kJ mol-1

Conductivity. As to ruthenium‘s electrical and thermal conductivity, the electrical conductivity measured as to electrical resistivity @ 20 ?C is 7.6 μΩcm and its electronegativities (or its ability to draw electrons relative to other elements) is 2.2. The thermal conductivity of ruthenium is 117 W m-1 K-1. 

Thermal Properties. The melting point and boiling point for ruthenium are stated below. The following chart sets forth the heat of fusion, heat of vaporization and heat of atomization.
Heat of Fusion 23.7 kJ mol-1
Heat of Vaporization 567 kJ mol-1
Heat of Atomization 641.031 kJ mol-1