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Palladium, including Technical Data, Safety Data and its high purity propertiesresearch, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure,ionization energyabundance on Earthconductivity and thermal properties are included.

Palladium is a member of the platinum group of metals. It is an excellent hydrogenation and dehydrogenation catalyst. It is alloyed and used in jewelry. The metal is used in dentistry, watch making, and in making surgical instruments and electrical contacts. Platinum is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder.

Palladium facts, including appearance, CAS #, and molecular formula and safety data, research and properties are available for many specific states, forms and shapes on the product pages listed to the left. Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes.Nanoparticles and nanopowdersprovide ultra high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. 

Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Lithium is available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are also manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries. 

Palladium is a Block D, Group 10, Period 5 element. The number of electrons in each of Palladium‘s shells is 2, 8, 18, 18 and its electronic configuration is [Kr] 4d10. In its elemental form palladium‘s CAS number is 7440-05-3. The palladium atom has a radius of and it‘s Van der Waals radius is 

All elemental metals, compounds and solutions may be synthesized in ultra high purity (e.g. 99.999%) for laboratory standards, advanced electronic, thin fillm deposition using sputtering targets and evaporation materials, metallurgy and optical materials and other high technology applications. Information is provided for stable (non-radioactive) isotopesOrgano-Metallic Lithium compounds are soluble in organic or non-aqueous solvents. See Analytical Services for information on available certified chemical and physical analysis techniques including MS-ICP, X-Ray Diffraction, PSD and Surface Area (BET) analysis. 

Nickel-copper deposits are the main source of Palladium commercial production. Palladium was first discovered by William Hyde Wollaston in 1803.

Abundance. The following table shows the abundance of lithium and each of its naturally occurringisotopes on Earth along with the atomic mass for each isotope.
Isotope Atomic Mass % Abundance on Earth
Li-6 6.0151223 7.5
Li-7 7.0160040 92.5

Safety Data. The safety data for lithium metalnanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the left margin. 

Ionization Energy. The ionization energy for lithium (the least required energy to release a single electron from the atom in it‘s ground state in the gas phase) is stated in the following table:
1st Ionization Energy 520.23 kJ mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy 7298.22 kJ mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy 11815.13 kJ mol-1

Conductivity. As to lithium‘s electrical and thermal conductivity, the electrical conductivity measured as to electrical resistivity @ 20 ?C is 8.55 μΩcm and its electronegativities (or its ability to draw electrons relative to other elements) is 0.98. The thermal conductivity of lithium is 84.7 W m-1 K-1. 

Thermal Properties. The melting point and boiling point for lithium are stated below. The following chart sets forth the heat of fusion, heat of vaporization and heat of atomization.
Heat of Fusion 4.6 kJ mol-1
Heat of Vaporization 147.7 kJ mol-1
Heat of Atomization 157.8 kJ mol-1

Formula Atomic Number Molecular Weight Electronegativity (Pauling) Density Melting Point Boiling Point Vanderwaals radius Ionic radius Energy of first ionization
Pd 46 106.42 g.mol-1 2.2 12020 at 20 °C 1554.9 °C 2963 °C .pm nm kJ.mol-1