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Boron , including Technical Data, Safety Data and its High Purity propertiesresearch, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure,ionization energyabundance on Earthconductivity and thermal properties are included.

Boron has an energy band gap of 1.50 to 1.56 eV, which is higher than that of either silicon or germanium. Optical characteristics include transmitting portions of the infrared. Boron is a poor conductor of electricity at room temperature but a good conductor at high temperature. Boron in its elemental form is not toxic. Amorphous boron is used in pyrotechnic flares to provide a distinctive green color, and in rockets as an igniter Boric acid is also an important boron compound with major markets in textile products. Boron compounds are also extensively used in the manufacture of borosilicate glasses. The isotope Boron-10 is used as a control for nuclear reactors, as a shield for nuclear radiation, and in instruments used for detecting neutrons. Boron nitride has remarkable properties and can be used to make a material as hard as diamond. The nitride also behaves like an electrical insulator but conducts heat like a metal. Boron also has lubricating properties similar to graphite. The hydrides are easily oxidized with considerable energy liberation, and have been studied for use as rocket fuels. Demand is increasing for boron filaments, a high-strength, lightweight material chiefly employed for advanced aerospace structures Boron is similar to carbon in that it has a capacity to form stable covalently bonded molecular networks. Boron is available as compounds with purities from 99% to 99.9999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). 
Boron facts, including appearance, CAS #, and molecular formula and safety data, research and properties are available for many specific states, forms and shapes on the product pages listed to the left. Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes.Nanoparticles and nanopowdersprovide ultra high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. 

Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Boron is available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are also manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries. 

Boron is a Block P, Group 13, Period 2 element. The number of electrons in each of Boron‘s shells is 2, 3 and its electronic configuration is [He] 2s2 2p1. In its elemental form boron‘s CAS number is 7440-42-8. The boron atom has a radius of and it‘s Van der Waals radius is Boron is not toxic. 

All elemental metals, compounds and solutions may be synthesized in ultra high purity (e.g. 99.999%) for laboratory standards, advanced electronic, thin fillm deposition using sputtering targets and evaporation materials, metallurgy and optical materials and other high technology applications. Information is provided for stable (non-radioactive) isotopesOrgano-Metallic Boron compounds are soluble in organic or non-aqueous solvents. See Analytical Services for information on available certified chemical and physical analysis techniques including MS-ICP, X-Ray Diffraction, PSD and Surface Area (BET) analysis. 

Boron was first discovered by Sir Humphry Davy and J.L Gay-Lussac in 1808. The name Boron originates from a combination of carbon and the Arabic word ‘buraqu meaning borax.

Abundance. The following table shows the abundance of boron and each of its naturally occurringisotopes on Earth along with the atomic mass for each isotope.
Isotope Atomic Mass % Abundance on Earth
B-10 10.0129370 19.9
B-11 11.0093055 80.1

The following table shows the abundance of Boron present in the human body and in the universe scaled to parts per billion (ppb) by weight and by atom:
  Typical Human Body Universe
by Weight 700 ppb 1 ppb
by Atom 410 ppb 0.1 ppb

Safety Data and Biological Role. The safety data for boron metalnanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the left margin. Boroncompounds are required by green algae and higher plants. 

Ionization Energy. The ionization energy for boron (the least required energy to release a single electron from the atom in it‘s ground state in the gas phase) is stated in the following table:
1st Ionization Energy 800.64 kJ mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy 2427.09 kJ mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy 3659.78 kJ mol-1

Conductivity. As to boron‘s electrical and thermal conductivity, the electrical conductivity measured as to electrical resistivity @ 20 ?C is 1.8E+12 μΩcm and its electronegativities (or its ability to draw electrons relative to other elements) is 2.04. The thermal conductivity of boron is 27 W m-1 K-1. 

Thermal Properties. The melting point and boiling point for boron are stated below. The following chart sets forth the heat of fusion, heat of vaporization and heat of atomization.
Heat of Fusion 22.2 kJ mol-1
Heat of Vaporization 504.5 kJ mol-1
Heat of Atomization 557.64 kJ mol-1

Formula Atomic Number Molecular Weight Electronegativity (Pauling) Density Melting Point Boiling Point Vanderwaals radius Ionic radius Energy of first ionization
B 5 10.81 g.mol -1 2.0 2.3 at 20 °C 2076 °C 3927 °C 0.027 nm 800.64 kJ.mol-1