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Tin , including Technical Data, Safety Data and its high purity propertiesresearch, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structureionization energy,abundance on Earthconductivity and thermal properties are included. 

Tin compounds sprayed onto glass are used to produce electrically conductive coatings. These have been used for panel lighting and for frost-free windshields. Most window glass is now made by floating molten glass on molten tin (float glass) to produce a flat surface. Crystalline tin-niobium alloy is superconductive at very low temperatures. This promises to be important in the construction of superconductive magnets that generate enormous field strengths but use practically no power. Tin is commonly extracted from the mineral cassiterite, SnO2 and is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.9999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. An important tin compound is the chloride, which is used as a reducing agent and as a mordant in calico printing. The origin of the word tin comes from the Latin word Stannum which translates to the Anglo-Saxon word tin. 

Tin is also used in various metal alloys (See AE Alloys). 

Tin facts, including appearance, CAS #, and molecular formula and safety data, research and properties are available for many specific states, forms and shapes on the product pages listed to the left. Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes.Nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. 

Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such usesas optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble.Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Tin is available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are also manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries. 

Tin is a Block P, Group 14, Period 5 element. The number of electrons in each of Tin‘s shells is 2, 8, 18, 18, 4 and its electronic configuration is [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2. In its elemental form tin‘s CAS number is 7440-31-5. The tin atom has a radius of and it‘s Van der Waals radius is Organometallic compounds of tin are very toxic and tin salts are also considered to be toxic. Tin as single atoms or molecules are not toxic. 

All elemental metals, compounds and solutions may be synthesized in ultra high purity(e.g. 99.999%) for laboratory standards, advanced electronic, thin fillm deposition usingsputtering targets and evaporation materials, metallurgy and optical materials and other high technology applications. Information is provided for stable (non-radioactive) isotopes.Organo-Metallic Tin compounds are soluble in organic or non-aqueous solvents. SeeAnalytical Services for information on available certified chemical and physical analysis techniques including MS-ICP, X-Ray Diffraction, PSD and Surface Area (BET) analysis. 

Tin was first discovered by Early Man.

Abundance. The following table shows the abundance of tin and each of its naturally occurring isotopes on Earth along with the atomic mass for each isotope.
Isotope Atomic Mass % Abundance on Earth
Sn-112 111.904821 0.97
Sn-114 113.902782 0.65
Sn-115 114.903346 0.34
Sn-116 115.901744 14.53
Sn-117 116.902954 7.68
Sn-118 117.901606 24.23
Sn-119 118.903309 8.59
Sn-120 119.902197 32.59
Sn-122 121.903440 4.63
Sn-124 123.905275 5.79

The following table shows the abundance of Tin present in the human body and in the universe scaled to parts per billion (ppb) by weight and by atom:
  Typical Human Body Universe
by Weight 200 ppb 4 ppb
by Atom 11 ppb 0.04 ppb

Safety Data and Biological Role. The safety data for tin metalnanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the left margin. Tin compounds are nesscessary, in minute amounts, in rats. 

Ionization Energy. The ionization energy for tin (the least required energy to release a single electron from the atom in it‘s ground state in the gas phase) is stated in the following table:
1st Ionization Energy 708.58 kJ mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy 1411.81 kJ mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy 2943.07 kJ mol-1

Conductivity. As to tin‘s electrical and thermal conductivity, the electrical conductivity measured as to electrical resistivity @ 20 ?C is 11 μΩcm and its electronegativities (or its ability to draw electrons relative to other elements) is 1.96. The thermal conductivity of tin is 66.6 W m-1 K-1. 

Thermal Properties. The melting point and boiling point for tin are stated below. The following chart sets forth the heat of fusion, heat of vaporization and heat of atomization.
Heat of Fusion 7.2 kJ mol-1
Heat of Vaporization 296.2 kJ mol-1
Heat of Atomization 302 kJ mol-1

Formula Atomic Number Molecular Weight Electronegativity (Pauling) Density Melting Point Boiling Point Vanderwaals radius Ionic radius Energy of first ionization
Sn 50 118.69 g.mol-1 1.8 5.77 at 20 °C 232 °C 2270 °C 0.112 nm (+2) ; 0.070 (+4) 708.58 kJ.mol-1