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Carbon , including Technical Data, Safety Data and its High Purity propertiesresearch, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure,ionization energyabundance on Earthconductivity and thermal properties are included.

Carbon In its elemental form is one of the softest (graphite) and hardest (diamond) materials found in nature. Applications for graphitic carbon include in lubricant formulations and as the replacement for lead in pencils. Diamond has numerous industrial applications due to its extreme hardness and resistance to heat and pressure. Graphene is a nanoscale ultra thin film or foil with thicknesses as small as 1 nanometer which can be produced from either silicon carbide or graphite flake processing. These include in drill bits and grinding media and grinding equipment. Carbon also finds application in steel alloys, in various filtering and purification technologies and as a neutron moderator in nuclear power plants. Carbon  is available as a nanoparticle and in single-walled, double-walled and multi-walled nanotubes with purities from 99% to 99.999% ( ultra-high purity ). Carbon is the fourth most abundant element in the universe following hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. Carbon in its purest form has very low toxicity. Carbon black dust, such as soot or coal dust can cause irritation and damage to the lungs when inhaled in large quantities.

Conductivity. As to carbon‘s electrical and thermal conductivity, the electrical conductivity measured as to electrical resistivity @ 20 ?C is 1375 μΩcm and its electronegativities (or its ability to draw electrons relative to other elements) is 2.55. The thermalconductivity of carbon is 5.7 W m-1 K-1. Pure carbon has very low toxicity. 

Thermal Properties. The melting point and boiling point for carbon are stated below. The following chart sets forth the heat of fusion, heat of vaporization and heat of atomization.
Heat of Fusion 105 kJ mol-1
Heat of Vaporization 710.9 kJ mol-1
Heat of Atomization 711.2 kJ mol-1

Formula Atomic Number Molecular Weight Electronegativity (Pauling) Density Melting Point Boiling Point Vanderwaals radius Ionic radius Energy of first ionization
C 6 12.0107(8) g.mol -1 2.55 2.267 at 20 °C 4027-4427 °C 3727 °C 0.05 nm 1086.46 kJ.mol-1