Home > Product list > Pb


Lead , including Technical Data, Safety Data and its high purity propertiesresearch, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure,ionization energyabundance on Earthconductivity and thermal properties are included. 

Lead is a bluish-white metal of bright luster, naturally occurring as a mixture of four stable isotopes: 204Pb (1.48%), 206Pb (23.6%), 207Pb (22.6%), and 208Pb (52.3%). It is highly resistant to corrosion and can be used to contain corrosive liquids such as sulfuric acid. Great quantities of Lead, both as the dioxide and the metal, are used in batteries, cable covering, plumbing, and ammunition. Alloys include solder, type metal, and various antifriction metals and compounds. Lead is extremely effective at absorbing sound and vibration. It is also used as radiation shielding for X-ray equipment and nuclear reactors. Oxides of Lead are used in producing fine "crystal glass" and "flint glass" of a high index of refraction for achromatic lenses. Lead ceramics and crystalline material have a wide range of industrial and optical applications, including infrared detection and imaging. Lead-based semiconductors, such as lead telluridelead selenide and lead antimonide are finding application in photovoltaic (solar energy) cells and infra red detectors. White lead, the basic carbonate, sublimed white lead, chrome yellow, and other lead compounds are used in paints, although the use of lead in paints has been drastically curtailed in recent years to reduce health hazards. Lead is available asmetal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.9999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). 

Lead is also used in various metal alloys (See AE Alloys). 
Lead facts, including appearance, CAS #, and molecular formula and safety data, research and properties are available for many specific states, forms and shapes on the product pages listed to the left. Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes.Nanoparticles and nanopowdersprovide ultra high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. 

Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxidestend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Lead is available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are also manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries. 

Lead is a Block P, Group 14, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of Lead‘s shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4 and its electronic configuration is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2. In its elemental form lead‘s CAS number is 7439-92-1. The lead atom has a radius of and it‘s Van der Waals radius is Lead and its compounds are poisonous. 

All elemental metals, compounds and solutions may be synthesized in ultra high purity (e.g. 99.999%) for laboratory standards, advanced electronic, thin fillm deposition using sputtering targets and evaporation materials, metallurgy and optical materials and other high technology applications. Information is provided for stable (non-radioactive) isotopesOrgano-Metallic Lead compounds are soluble in organic or non-aqueous solvents. See Analytical Services for information on available certified chemical and physical analysis techniques including MS-ICP, X-Ray Diffraction, PSD and Surface Area (BET) analysis. 

Lead was first discovered by Early Man. The origin of the name Lithium comes from the Greek word protos meaning "first".

Abundance. The following table shows the abundance of lead and each of its naturally occurringisotopes on Earth along with the atomic mass for each isotope.
Isotope Atomic Mass % Abundance on Earth
Pb-204 203.973029 1.4
Pb-206 205.974449 24.1
Pb-207 206.975881 22.1
Pb-208 207.976636 52.4

The following table shows the abundance of Lead present in the human body and in the universe scaled to parts per billion (ppb) by weight and by atom:
  Typical Human Body Universe
by Weight 1700 ppb 10 ppb
by Atom 50 ppb 0.06 ppb

Safety Data and Biological Role. The safety data for lead metalnanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the left margin. Leadcompounds have no biological role. 

Ionization Energy. The ionization energy for lead (the least required energy to release a single electron from the atom in it‘s ground state in the gas phase) is stated in the following table:
1st Ionization Energy 715.60 kJ mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy 1450.40 kJ mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy 3081.50 kJ mol-1

Conductivity. As to lead‘s electrical and thermal conductivity, the electrical conductivity measured as to electrical resistivity @ 20 ?C is 20.648 μΩcm and its electronegativities (or its ability to draw electrons relative to other elements) is 1.8. The thermal conductivity of lead is 35.3 W m-1 K-1. 

Thermal Properties. The melting point and boiling point for lead are stated below. The following chart sets forth the heat of fusion, heat of vaporization and heat of atomization.
Heat of Fusion 5.121 kJ mol-1
Heat of Vaporization 177.8 kJ mol-1
Heat of Atomization 195.74 kJ mol-1

Formula Atomic Number Molecular Weight Electronegativity (Pauling) Density Melting Point Boiling Point Vanderwaals radius Ionic radius Energy of first ionization
Pb 82 207.2 g.mol-1 1.8 11.4 at 20 °C 327 °C 1755 °C 0.112 nm (+2) ; 0.070 (+4) 715.60 kJ.mol-1