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Neodymium , including Technical Data, Safety Data and its high purity propertiesresearch, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure,ionization energyabundance on Earthconductivity and thermal properties are included. 

Neodymium is the most abundant of the rare earths after cerium and lanthanum. Neodymium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. Primary applications include lasers,glass coloring and tinting, dielectrics and, most importantly, as the fundamental basis for neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets. Neodymium has a strong absorption band centered at 580 nm, which is very close to the human eye‘s maximum level of sensitivity making it useful in protective lenses for welding goggles. It is also used in CRT displays to enhance contrast between reds and greens and highly valued in glass manufacturing for its attractive purple coloring. Neodymium is included in many formulations of barium titanate, used as dielectric coatings and in multi-layer capacitors essential to electronic equipment. 

Neodymium facts, including appearance, CAS #, and molecular formula and safety data, research and properties are available for many specific states, forms and shapes on the product pages listed to the left. Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. 

Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Neodymium is available in soluble forms includingchlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are also manufactured assolutions at specified stoichiometries. 

Neodymium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of Neodymium‘s shells is 2, 8, 18, 22, 8, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Xe] 4f4 6s2. In its elemental form neodymium‘s CAS number is 7440-00-8. The neodymium atom has a radius of and it‘s Van der Waals radius is 

All elemental metals, compounds and solutions may be synthesized in ultra high purity (e.g. 99.999%) for laboratory standards, advanced electronic, thin fillm deposition using sputtering targets and evaporation materials, metallurgy and optical materials and other high technology applications. Information is provided for stable (non-radioactive) isotopesOrgano-Metallic Neodymium compounds are soluble in organic or non-aqueous solvents. See Analytical Services for information on available certified chemical and physical analysis techniques including MS-ICP, X-Ray Diffraction, PSD and Surface Area (BET) analysis. 

Neodymium is found in monazite and bastn?site ores. Neodymium was first discovered by Carl Aer von Welsbach in 1885. The name originates from the Greek words ‘neos didymos’, meaning new twin.

Neodymium Abundance. The following table shows the abundance of Neodymium and each of its naturally occurring isotopes on Earth along with the atomic mass for each isotope.
Isotope Atomic Mass % Abundance on Earth
Nd-142 141.908 27.13
Nd-143 142.910 12.18
Nd-144 143.910 23.80
Nd-144 144.913 8.30
Nd-146 145.913 17.19
Nd-148 147.917 5.76
Nd-150 149.921 5.64

The following table shows the abundance of Neodymium present in the human body and in the universe scaled to parts per billion (ppb) by weight and by atom:
  Typical Human Body Universe
by Weight no data 10 ppb
by Atom no data 0.09 ppb

Neodymium Safety Data and Biological Role. The safety data for Neodymium metalnanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the left margin. Neodymium compounds have no biological role. 

Ionization Energy. The ionization energy for Neodymium (the least required energy to release a single electron from the atom in it‘s ground state in the gas phase) is stated in the following table:
1st Ionization Energy 533.09 kJ mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy 1035.30 kJ mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy 2132.34 kJ mol-1

Conductivity. As to Neodymium‘s electrical and thermal conductivity, the electrical conductivity measured in terms of electrical resistivity @ 20 ?C is 64 ?Ocm and its electronegativities (or its ability to draw electrons relative to other elements) is 1.14. The thermal conductivity of Neodymium is 16.5 W m-1K-1. 

Thermal Properties of Neodymium. The melting point and boiling point for Neodymium are statedbelow. The following chart sets forth the heat of fusion, heat of vaporization and heat of atomization.
Heat of Fusion 7.113 kJ mol-1
Heat of Vaporization 328 kJ mol-1
Heat of Atomization 328.57 kJ mol-1

Formula Atomic Number Molecular Weight Electronegativity (Pauling) Density Melting Point Boiling Point Vanderwaals radius Ionic radius Energy of first ionization
Nd 60 144.2 g.mol -1 1.14 7.0 1024 °C 3074 °C 0.181 nm unknown) 533 kJ.mol-1