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erbium, including Technical Data, Safety Data and its high purity propertiesresearch, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structureionization energyabundance on Earthconductivity and thermal propertiesare included. 

Terbium is primarily used in phosphors, particularly in fluorescent lamps and as the high intensity green emitter used in projection televisions, such as the yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Tb:YAG) variety. Terbium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. Terbium responds efficiently in x-ray excitation and is, therefore, used as an x-ray phosphor. Terbium alloys are also used in magneto-optic recording films, such as Tb-Fe-Co. 

Terbium facts, including appearance, CAS #, and molecular formula and safety data, research and properties are available for many specific states, forms and shapes on the product pages listed to the left. Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. 

Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble.Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Terbium is available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are also manufactured assolutions at specified stoichiometries. 

Terbium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of Terbium‘s shells is 2, 8, 18, 27, 8, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Xe]4f9 6s2. In its elemental form terbium‘s CAS number is 7440-27-9. Terbium is considered to be somewhat toxic.The terbium atom has a radius of and it‘s Van der Waals radius is unknown. 

All elemental metals, compounds and solutions may be synthesized in ultra high purity (e.g. 99.999%) for laboratory standards, advanced electronic, thin fillm deposition using sputtering targets and evaporation materials, metallurgy and optical materials and other high technology applications. Information is provided for stable (non-radioactive) isotopesOrgano-MetallicTerbium compounds are soluble in organic or non-aqueous solvents. See Analytical Services for information on available certified chemical and physical analysis techniques including MS-ICP, X-Ray Diffraction, PSD and Surface Area (BET) analysis. 

Terbium was first discovered by Carl Mosander in 1843. Terbium is named after "Ytterby", a town in Sweden.

Terbium Abundance. The following table shows the abundance of Terbium and each of its naturally occurring isotopes on Earth along with the atomic mass for each isotope.
Isotope Atomic Mass % Abundance on Earth
Tb-159 158.925 100

The following table shows the abundance of Terbium present in the human body and in the universe scaled to parts per billion (ppb) by weight and by atom:
Heat of Fusion 16.3 kJ mol-1
Heat of Vaporization 391 kJ mol-1
Heat of Atomization 390.62 kJ mol-1

Terbium Safety Data and Biological Role. The safety data for Terbium metalnanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the left margin. Terbium compounds have no biological role. 

Ionization Energy. The ionization energy for Terbium (the least required energy to release a single electron from the atom in it‘s ground state in the gas phase) is stated in the following table:
1st Ionization Energy 565.77 kJ mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy 1111.52 kJ mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy 2114.01 kJ mol-1

Conductivity. As to Terbium‘s electrical and thermal conductivity, the electrical conductivity measured in terms of electrical resistivity @ 20 ?C is 116 ?Ocm and its electronegativities (or its ability to draw electrons relative to other elements) is non-detectable. The thermal conductivity of Terbium is 11.1 W m-1 K-1. 

Thermal Properties of Terbium. The melting point and boiling point for Terbium are stated below. The following chart sets forth the heat of fusion, heat of vaporization and heat of atomization.
Heat of Fusion 16.3 kJ mol-1
Heat of Vaporization 391 kJ mol-1
Heat of Atomization 390.62 kJ mol-1

Formula Atomic Number Molecular Weight Electronegativity (Pauling) Density Melting Point Boiling Point Vanderwaals radius Ionic radius Energy of first ionization
Tb 65 158.92534 g.mol-1 1.2 8.3 at 20 °C 1360 °C 3041 °C unknown unknown 563.5 kJ.mol-1