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Dysprosium including Technical Data, Safety Data and its High Purity propertiesresearch, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure,ionization energyabundance on Earthconductivity and thermal properties are included. 

Dysprosium is most commonly used in neodymium-iron-boron high strength permanent magnets. Dysprosium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. While it has one of the highest magnetic moments of any of the rare earths (10.6?B), this has not resulted in an ability to perform on its own as a practical alternative to neodymiumcompositions. It is however now an essential additive in NdFeB production. It is also used in special ceramic compositions based on BaTiO formulations. Recent research has examined the use of dysprosium in dysprosium-iron-garnet (DyIG) and silicon implanted with dysprosium andholmium to form donor centers. Dysprosium is added to various advanced optical formulations due to the fact that it emits in the 470-500 and 570-600 nm wavelengths. Dysprosium metal is used in rare earth magnet alloys and magnesium alloys. Due to dysprosium and its compounds high susceptibility to magnetization, they are used in a variety of data storage applications, such as in compact discs. 

Dysprosium facts, including appearance, CAS #, and molecular formula and safety data, research and properties are available for many specific states, forms and shapes on the product pages listed to the left. Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. 

Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Dysprosium is available in soluble forms includingchlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are also manufactured assolutions at specified stoichiometries. 

Dysprosium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of Dysprosium‘s shells is 2, 8, 18, 28, 8, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Xe] 4f10 6s2. In its elemental form dysprosium‘s CAS number is 7429-91-6. The dysprosium atom has a radius of and it‘s Van der Waals radius is unknown. Dysprosium is moderately toxic. 

All elemental metals, compounds and solutions may be synthesized in ultra high purity (e.g. 99.999%) for laboratory standards, advanced electronic, thin fillm deposition using sputtering targets and evaporation materials, metallurgy and optical materials and other high technology applications. Information is provided for stable (non-radioactive) isotopesOrgano-Metallic Dysprosium compounds are soluble in organic or non-aqueous solvents. See Analytical Services for information on available certified chemical and physical analysis techniques including MS-ICP, X-Ray Diffraction, PSD and Surface Area (BET) analysis. 

Dysprosium is found in various minerals including bastn?site, blomstrandine, euxenite, fergusonite, gadolinite, monazite, polycrase and xenotime. It is not found in nature as a free element. Monazite sand is the primary commercial source of Dysprosium. Dysprosium was first discovered by Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1886. The element name originates from the Greek word ‘dysprositos‘ meaning hard to get at.

Dysprosium Abundance. The following table shows the abundance of Dysprosium and each of its naturally occurring isotopes on Earth along with the atomic mass for each isotope.
Isotope Atomic Mass % Abundance on Earth
Dy-156 155.924 0.06
Dy-158 157.924 0.10
Dy-160 159.925 2.34
Dy-161 160.927 18.9
Dy-162 161.927 25.5
Dy-163 162.929 24.9
Dy-164 163.929 28.2

The following table shows the abundance of Dysprosium present in the human body and in the universe scaled to parts per billion (ppb) by weight and by atom:
  Typical Human Body Universe
by Weight no data 2 ppb
by Atom no data 0.02 ppb

Dysprosium Safety Data and Biological Role. The safety data for Dysprosium metalnanoparticlesand its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the left margin. Dysprosium compounds have no biological role. 

Ionization Energy. The ionization energy for Dysprosium (the least required energy to release a single electron from the atom in it‘s ground state in the gas phase) is stated in the following table:
1st Ionization Energy 573.02 kJ mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy 1125.99 kJ mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy 2199.88 kJ mol-1

Conductivity. As to Dysprosium‘s electrical and thermal conductivity, the electrical conductivity measured in terms of electrical resistivity @ 20 oC is 57 Ocm and its electronegativities (or its ability to draw electrons relative to other elements) is 1.22. The thermal conductivity of Dysprosium is 10.7 W m-1K-1

Thermal Properties of Dysprosium. The melting point and boiling point for Dysprosium are stated