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Platinum, including Technical Data, Safety Data and its high purity propertiesresearch, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure,ionization energyabundance on Earthconductivity and thermal properties are included. 

Platinum is a member of the platinum group of metals. It is highly corrosion resistant and has numerous catalytic applications. These include in petrochemical cracking catalysts, automotive catalytic converters and in the processes used for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The metal does not oxidize in air at any temperature. The metal is extensively used in jewelry, electronic wire, and crucibles for corrosive and high temperature laboratory uses and in many advanced instruments. Platinum compounds have application in medicine. Platinum is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form offoil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder.

 Platinum facts, including appearance, CAS #, and molecular formula and safety data, research and properties are available for many specific states, forms and shapes on the product pages listed to the left. Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes.Nanoparticles and nanopowdersprovide ultra high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. 

Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Platinum is available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are also manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries. 

Platinum is a Block D, Group 10, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of Platinum‘s shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 17, 1 and its electronic configuration is [Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1. In its elemental form platinum‘s CAS number is 7440-06-4. The platinum atom has a radius of and it‘s Van der Waals radius is Platinum is not toxic. 

All elemental metals, compounds and solutions may be synthesized in ultra high purity (e.g. 99.999%) for laboratory standards, advanced electronic, thin fillm deposition using sputtering targets and evaporation materials, metallurgy and optical materials and other high technology applications. Information is provided for stable (non-radioactive) isotopesOrgano-Metallic platinum compounds are soluble in organic or non-aqueous solvents. See Analytical Services for information on available certified chemical and physical analysis techniques including MS-ICP, X-Ray Diffraction, PSD and Surface Area (BET) analysis. Platinum is found in alluvial deposits and with iridium as platiniridium. Platinum was first discovered by Julius Scaliger in 1735. The origin of the name comes from the Spanish word platina meaning silver.

Abundance. The following table shows the abundance of platinum and each of its naturally occurringisotopes on Earth along with the atomic mass for each isotope.

Isotope Atomic Mass % Abundance on Earth
Pt-190 189.959930 0.01
Pt-192 191.961035 0.79
Pt-194 193.962664 32.9
Pt-195 194.964774 33.8
Pt-196 195.964935 25.3
Pt-198 197.967876 7.2

The following table shows the abundance of Platinum present in the human body and in the universe scaled to parts per billion (ppb) by weight and by atom:
  Typical Human Body Universe
by Weight no data 5 ppb
by Atom no data 0.03 ppb

Safety Data and Biological Role. The safety data for platinum metalnanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the left margin. Platinum compounds have no biological role. 

Ionization Energy. The ionization energy for platinum (the least required energy to release a single electron from the atom in it‘s ground state in the gas phase) is stated in the following table:
1st Ionization Energy 864.39 kJ mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy 1791.07 kJ mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy - kJ mol-1

Conductivity. As to platinum‘s electrical and thermal conductivity, the electrical conductivity measured as to electrical resistivity @ 20 ?C is 10.6 μΩcm and its electronegativities (or its ability to draw electrons relative to other elements) is 2.2. The thermal conductivity of platinum is 71.6 W m-1 K-1. 

Thermal Properties. The melting point and boiling point for platinum are stated below. The following chart sets forth the heat of fusion, heat of vaporization and heat of atomization.
Heat of Fusion 19.7 kJ mol-1
Heat of Vaporization 469 kJ mol-1
Heat of Atomization 564.42 kJ mol-1

Formula Atomic Number Molecular Weight Electronegativity (Pauling) Density Melting Point Boiling Point Vanderwaals radius Ionic radius Energy of first ionization
Pt 78 195.09 g.mol-1 2.2 21.4 at 20 °C 1772 °C 3800 °C 0.096 nm (+2) 864.39 kJ.mol-1